Because of vastly expanding populations, increasing water demand, and the deterioration of water resource quality and quantity, water is going to be the most precious resource in the world. Thus, the 21st century is called the “water century.” In the 20th century, membrane technologies made great progress, and commercial markets have been spreading very rapidly and throughout the world. The key technologies fueling this progress are as follows:

1. Materials: Chemical design of high-performance materials suitable for each separation mode
2. Morphology: Morphological design of high-performance membranes
3. Element/Module: Element and module design for high-performance membranes
4. Membrane Process: Plant design and operation technology

In 21st century, to solve these water problems, membranes technology is going to be further expanded and new technology—further improvements of membrane performance, development of membrane systems, membranes stability such as antifouling membranes for wastewater treatment, and other highly qualified membranes—will be needed. Among desalination technologies available today, reverse osmosis (RO) is regarded as the most economical desalination process. Therefore, RO membranes have played crucial roles in obtaining fresh water from nonconventional water resources such as seawater and wastewater.


  1. Thin-Film Composite Membranes for Reverse Osmosis
  2. Cellulose Triacetate Membranes for Reverse Osmosis
  3. Seawater Desalination
  4. Seawater Desalination by Ultralow-Energy Reverse Osmosis
  5. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration
  6. Water Treatment by Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration
  7. Water Reclamation and Desalination by Membranes
  8. Chitosan Membranes with Nanoparticles for Remediation of Chlorinated Organics
  9. Membrane Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment
  10. Submerged Membranes
  11. Nanofiltration
  12. Membrane Distillation
  13. Ultrapure Water by Membranes
  14. Tissue Engineering with Membranes
  15. Biopharmaceutical Separations by Ultrafiltration
  16. Nanofiltration in Organic Solvents
  17. Pervaporation
  18. Biomedical Applications of Membranes
  19. Hemodialysis Membranes
  20. Tangential-Flow Filtration for Virus Capture
  21. Vapor and Gas Separation by Membranes
  22. Gas Separation by Polyimide Membranes
  23. Gas Separation by Carbon Membranes
  24. Polymeric Membrane Materials and Potential Use in Gas Separation
  25. Hydrogen Separation Membranes
  26. Membrane Contactors
  27. Membrane Reactors
  28. Facilitated Transport Membranes for Environmental, Energy, and Biochemical Applications
  29. Fuel Cell Membranes
  30. Recent Progress in Mixed-Matrix Membranes
  31. Fabrication of Hollow-Fiber Membranes by Phase Inversion
  32. Membrane Surface Characterization
  33. Membrane Characterization by Ultrasonic Time-Domain Reflectometry
  34. Microstructural Optimization of Thin Supported Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Water Purification
  35. Structure/Property Characteristics of Polar Rubbery Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Removal

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